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国际视野|MOMA当代摄影档案1960-NOW 档案:重构历史

2017-05-10 10:42:28 来源:MOMA 【转载】 作者:文 / Eva Respini 译 / 西毒 编辑:斫子 Su Yuezhuo
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Archive:

Rewriting Histories

档案:重构历史(节选)

文 / Eva Respini  译 / 西毒

从照片被发明以来,它已经称为档案的代名词了,如今最常见的档案文件就是照片。照片的特性非常契合档案用来记录、分类以及整理知识的功能。档案摄影由记录犯罪案件、考古发现等等社会事件发展而来, 通常用于永久性的档案储存,给予历史以可靠性和证据支持,并促进了人类学、社会学和科技的发展。

摄影师从摄影术发明之际便开始探索照片与证据、历史和信息的关系。在过去的四十年中,由于照片的普及性、大量网络信息的涌现,以及数码影像的不断增殖,同时作为主体和形式的档案变成一个众矢之的。通过对档案文件和逻辑组织系统的重新解释和再应用,艺术家们挑战了档案的权威和重要性。

其中一种策略是转化官方档案的语境,并制造新的叙事,从而质疑摄影的真实性。加利福尼亚艺术家Larry Sultan和Mike Mandel共同拍摄的“Evidence”便是这种创作方法的先驱。艺术家从公共和私人档案中梳理了四十万张照片,从中选出九十九张照片作为最终成书和展览的集合,从而创造出一中神秘、有趣,甚至充满幽默感的叙事结构。

而有些艺术家探讨的是照片重现历史的局限性,德国艺术家Michael Schmidt的“U-NI-TY”创作于柏林墙倒塌的第二年,他集合了公共和私人的影像将统一后的德国形象化,并探讨了激情澎湃的德国人背后的身份危机。

中国艺术家海波的系列作品“他们”,其中交织了时间和记忆,从个人角度审视了文化大革命,每一对照片都含有一张文革时期红卫兵合影和一张现代版本的合影,这以鲜明对比凸显了过去三十年中国社会的现代化,特别是西方化进程。

二十世纪末和新世纪初,公共和个人领域之间的界线越来越模糊,艺术家开始运用个人肖像去体现公共事件。在系列“May, June, July, August”中,艺术家Lorna Simpson从一本ebay买来的相册着手,在这本1957年的相册中,一位不知名的洛杉矶女性在照片中摆出各种海报女郎的姿势,艺术家模仿照片中的场景和姿势重新演绎了快照内容,给予它们以不同的格调和新的公共职能。

照片担当了历史的见证者,自从十九世纪中叶的克里米亚战争以来,阴森可怖、充满暴力的历史瞬间让我们意识到记忆和理解之间的差距是如此之大。越南战场的照片甚至成为左右公众舆论的关键点,从而产生规模浩大的反战运动。档案摄影提出了一系列有关作者、权威和图像阅读的问题,同时引人反思这一媒介在建构历史叙事中所发挥的关键作用。

Carrie Mae Weems

American, born 1953

卡丽·梅·维姆斯

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From here I Saw What Happened and I Cried. 1995

Thirty-four chromogenic color prints with sandblasted text on glass (10 shown)

Gift on behalf of The Friends of Education of The Museum of Modern Art, 1997

Taryn Simon

American, born 1975

塔林·西蒙

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Chapter I, A Living Man Declared Dead and Other Chapters I-XVIII. 2011

Three pigmented inkjet prints (213.4×301.6 cm)

Gift of the Fundacion Almine y Bernard Ruiz-Picasso, 2012

Gilles Peress

French, born 1946

吉尔·佩雷斯

The Silence. 1994

Twenty two gelatin silver prints (six shown)

Gift of Susan and Peter MacGill, 2007

Hai Bo

Chinese, born 1962

海波

The No. 6. 1999

Two chromogenic color prints. each (60.9×87.6 cm)

The Family of Man Fund, 2008

Bertien van Manen

Dutch, born 1942

博蒂·范·梅南

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Munich, Germany, from the series Give Me Your Image. 2002-05

Chromogenic color print (32.2×48.2 cm)

E. T. Harmax Foundation Fund, 2005

Gay Block

American, born 1942

盖伊·布洛克

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Adele Defarges, France, from the series Rescures: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocause. 1988

Chromogenic color print (57.4×47 cm)

Gift of the artist, 1994

Lorna Simpson

American, born 1960

劳娜·辛普森

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May, June, July, August #8. 2009

Twelve gelatin prints (12.7×12.7 cm)

Aquired through the generosity of The Contemporary Arts Council of The Museum of Modern Art, 2010

Akram Zaatari

Lebanses, born 1966

阿克朗·扎塔利

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After They Got the Right to Arms. Fourteen Young Men Posing with Guns. Early 1970s/2006

Siteen gelatin silver prints (28.8×28.8 cm)

Fund for the Twenty-First Century, 2012

Christian Boltanski

French, born 1944

克莉丝汀·博尔塔斯基

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The Storehouse. 1988

Seven gelatin silver prints with seven electric lamps and 192 tin biscuit boxes containing cloth fragments (211.2×375.8 cm)

Jerry I. Speyer Mr. and Mrs. Gifford Phillips, Barbara Jackson, and Arnold A. Saltzan Funds, and purchase, 2989

Carlos Garaicoa

Cuba, born 1967

卡洛斯·加赖科亚

Untitled (L.A.). 2004

Two gelatin silver prints, one with thread and pins (100.3×150.5 cm)

Fund of the Twenty-First Century, 2005

Walid Raad

Lebanese, born 1967

瓦利德·拉德

My neck is thinner than a hair: Engines. 1996-2004

One hundred gelatin silver prints (24×34 cm)

Fund for the Twenty-First Century, 2004

Michael Schmidt

German, 1945-2014

迈克尔·施密特

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U-NI-TY. 1991-94

163 gelatin silver prints (thirty-one shown)

Horace W. Goldsmith Fund through Robert B. Menschel and purchase, 1998

Zoe Leonard

American, born 1961

佐伊·伦纳德

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Analogue. 1998-2009

342 chromogenic color prints and 70 gelatin silver prints

Aquired through the generosity of The Contemporary Arts Counil of The Museum of Modern Art, 2013

David Wojnarowicz

American, 1954-1992

大卫·沃纳洛维次

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Weight of the Earth, Part I. 1988

Fourteen gelatin silver prints (99.1×104.8 cm)

The Family of Man Fund, 1991

Roni Horn

American, born 1955

罗尼·霍恩

Still Water. 1999

Eighy offset lithographs (81.6×57.5 cm)

Aquired through the generosity of Kathy and Richard S. Fuld, Jr., 2007

Olafur Eliasson

Danish and Icelandic, born 1967

奥拉维尔·埃利亚松

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Jokla Series. 2004

Fourty-eight chromogenic color prints (36×54 cm)

Aquired through the generosity of Jerry I. Speyer, Marie-Josee Kravis, and Micheal Lynne, 2006

Hans-Peter Feldmann

American, born 1969

汉斯-皮特·费尔德曼

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11 Pictures. 1973

Artist's Book (9.7×9.8 cm)

The Museum of Modern Art Library, New York, 1986

Takuma Nakahira

Japanese, born 1938

中平卓马

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C-084, from the series Circulation: Date, Olace, Events. 1971

Gelatin silver print, printed 2013 (32.1×48 cm)

David H. McAlpin Fund, 2014

Larry Sultan

American, 1946-2009

拉里·苏尔坦

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Evidence. 1977

Artist's book (23.5×225.5 cm)

The Museum of Modern Art Library, New York, 1987

Rachel Harrison

American, born 1966

雷切尔·哈里森

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Voyage of the Beagle. 2007

Fifty-seven pigmented inkjet prints (twelve shown)

Fund for the Twenty-First Century, 2007

Phil Collins

British, born 1970

菲尔·柯林斯

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free fotolab. 2009

Eighty 35mm slides (four shown)

Fund for the Twenty-First Century. 2011

Jan De Cock

Belgian, born 1976

简·德·库克

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Denkmal 11, Museum of Modern Art, 11 West 53 Street, New York, 2008. Diptych 23, Module CCCXX, Module CCCXXI. 2008

Two chromogenic color prints (133×79 cm)

Fund for the Twenty-First Century, 2008

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